The EU and Iranian Nuclear Programme: Is Venus Weaker Than Mars?

By Polina Sinovets and Valeriia Gergiieva

The article is focused on the role of the EU in resolving crisis around the Iranian nuclear programme. It covers the period starting from 2003, when the Iranian nuclear programme was revealed, and is divided into five stages of the involvement of European states in the Iranian crisis resolution. The fifth stage is still in process and demonstrates the EU attempts to save the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action after the US withdrawal. One of the current mechanisms mentioned in this article is INSTEX, aimed at trading with Iran bypassing the US sanctions.